# Celestial Navigation Basics – Ho Observed Altitude

In this post we will look at how to reduce a sextant apparent altitude Ha to an observed altitude Ho. In the following post, we will look at how to calculate Hc. Ho will then be compared with Hc to determine an intercept. The complete details are contained in Ref.1. Complete Sight Reduction procedures are contained in the Nautical Almanac Ref.2 starting page 277, and the NAO form on page 319.

Hs = Sextant Altitude

Ha = Apparent Altitude

Ho = Observed Altitude

Fig.1 shows the result of our sextant altitudes taken on Monday July 6th_2020 at Trillium Park (Ref.3):

Lat = 43deg 37′ 46.2″ North
Long = 79deg 24′ 34.2″ West
Height of Eye = 3.0m
Index Error = 59min = 1min on_limb

Hs average = 63deg 32.25min at 12:06DST/16:06UTC

Fig.2 shows a ScicosLab routine used to calculate the refraction based on the Nautical Almanac formula on p.280. The formula compensates for temperature. SD is taken from the Nautical Almanac for Monday July 6th_2020. Fig.3 shows a spreadsheet used to calculate Ho from Ha (Ref.4).

Ho = Ha – Refraction +PA +/- SD = 63deg 28.25min – 0.5min + 0min + 15.7min = 63deg 43.45min = 63.724deg

Fig.4 is a short mp4 that explains the reduction of Ha to Ho.

Celestial Navigation Basics & Equipment Ebk:
https://www.clarktelecommunications.com/celnav.htm

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## References

#1. “Celestial Navigation Basics & Equipment”, Clark Telecommunications, 2019, ISBN 9780988049086
https://www.clarktelecommunications.com/celnav.htm

#2. – “Nautical Almanac 2020 Commercial Edition”, Paradise Cay Publications, ISBN 9781951116033
https://www.paracay.com/nautical-almanac/

#3. – “Celestial Navigation Basics – Hs Sextant Altitude”

#4. – “Celestial Navigation Basics – Ha Apparent Altitude”

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